Maksimovic J, Hu JW, Ng SH, Katkus T, Seniutinas G et al. Beyond Lambertian light trapping for large-area silicon solar cells: fabrication methods. Opto-Electron Adv 5, 210086 (2022). doi: 10.29026/oea.2022.210086
Citation: Maksimovic J, Hu JW, Ng SH, Katkus T, Seniutinas G et al. Beyond Lambertian light trapping for large-area silicon solar cells: fabrication methods. Opto-Electron Adv 5, 210086 (2022). doi: 10.29026/oea.2022.210086

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Beyond Lambertian light trapping for large-area silicon solar cells: fabrication methods

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  • Light trapping photonic crystal (PhC) patterns on the surface of Si solar cells provides a novel opportunity to approach the theoretical efficiency limit of 32.3%, for light-to-electrical power conversion with a single junction cell. This is beyond the efficiency limit implied by the Lambertian limit of ray trapping ~ 29%. The interference and slow light effects are harnessed for collecting light even at the long wavelengths near the Si band-gap. We compare two different methods for surface patterning, that can be extended to large area surface patterning: 1) laser direct write and 2) step-&-repeat 5× reduction projection lithography. Large area throughput limitations of these methods are compared with the established electron beam lithography (EBL) route, which is conventionally utilised but much slower than the presented methods. Spectral characterisation of the PhC light trapping is compared for samples fabricated by different methods. Reflectance of Si etched via laser patterned mask was ~ 7% at visible wavelengths and was comparable with Si patterned via EBL made mask. The later pattern showed a stronger absorbance than the Lambertian limit6.
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