2. College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116, China;
3. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Information Materials and Technology, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China
Overview: Electrowetting is an electronic paper display with the advantages of fast response, low cost, and low energy loss. Electrowetting display technology is currently in a high-speed development period. Electrowetting devices may have defects in the production process, due to ink spillage, the uneven spin coating of the hydrophobic insulating layer, and externally introduced impurities. Defects affect the display of electrowetting devices, so the detection of defects is indispensable. Aiming at the effect of pixel defects on the display of electrowetting electronic paper, an automatic threshold detection method based on Otsu is proposed to detect defects. Otsu is a commonly used automatic threshold method that gives satisfactory results when the image histogram is bimodal. However, since the electrowetting defect image histogram is usually unimodal, it is easy to get incorrect results. Moreover, the electrowetting electronic paper is filled with pixels by three primary inks to realize color display, so the contrast between the defect and the background is different, and the difficulty of segmentation is also different. In order to separate the electrowetting defects in different shades of ink, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation algorithm is proposed. The basic principle of the method is to introduce a weighting factor before the target variance and affect the value of the variance between-class by the weighting factor, which affects the final threshold selection. The weight decreases with the increase of the probability of accumulation of defects, and the weight is always at a higher value when the threshold is at the left edge of the peak. Specifically, the weights have different change rules before and after the peak to change the contribution of the defect variance. When the threshold passes through the peak, the contribution of the defect variance is reduced, and the value of the between-class variance is affected by the weight, which can make the threshold on the left side of the peak. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively segment the electrowetting defect area. In the electrowetting defect image in the dark ink with low contrast, the ME value of this method is small. Otsu and other automatic threshold methods have ME values above 0.87, and the segmentation results are far from the desired threshold. The proposed method can segment defects in different inks and have better segmentation effects especially when the contrast of defects and background is low.