Modification of reduced graphene oxidein a controllable manner provides a promising material platform for producinggraphene based devices. Its fusion with direct laser writing methods has enabled cost-effective and scalable production for advanced applications based on tailored optical and electronic properties in the conductivity, the fluorescence and the refractive index during the reduction process. This mini-reviewsummarizesthe state-of-the-art status of the mechanisms of reduction of graphene oxides by direct laser writing techniques as well as appealing opticaldiffractive applications including planar lenses, information storage and holographic displays. Owing to its versatility and up-scalability, the laser reduction method holds enormous potentials for graphene baseddiffractive photonic devices with diverse functionalities.
Diffractive photonic applications mediated by laser reduced graphene oxides
1. A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, "The rise of graphene," Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191 (2007).
2. S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, "Graphene-based composite materials," Nature 442, 282-286 (2006).
3. G. Eda, G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, "Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material," Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 270-274 (2008).
4. Y. Zhu, S. Murali, W. Cai, X. Li, J. W. Suk, J. R. Potts, and R. S. Ruoff, "Graphene and graphene oxide: Synthesis, properties, and applications," Adv. Mater. 22, 3906-3924 (2010).
5. G. Eda, Y.-Y. Lin, S. Miller, C.-W. Chen, W.-F. Su, and M. Chhowalla, "Transparent and conducting electrodes for organic electronics from reduced graphene oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233305 (2008).
6. Y. L. Zhang, L. Guo, S. Wei, Y. Y. He, H. Xia, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, and F. S. Xiao, "Direct imprinting of microcircuits on graphene oxides film by femtosecond laser reduction," Nano Today 5, 15-20 (2010).
7. X. S. Li, Y. W. Zhu, W. W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Y. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, "Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes," Nano Lett. 9, 4359-4363 (2009).
8. M. F. El-Kady, V. Strong, S. Dubin, and R. B. Kaner, "Laser Scribing of High-Performance and Flexible Graphene-Based Electrochemical Capacitors," Science 335, 1326-1330 (2012).
9. W. Gao, N. Singh, L. Song, Z. Liu, A. L. M. Reddy, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, Q. Zhang, B. Wei, and P. M. Ajayan, "Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films," Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 496-500 (2011).
10. M. F. El-Kady, and R. B. Kaner, "Scalable fabrication of high-power graphene micro-supercapacitors for flexible and on-chip energy storage," Nat. Commun. 4, 1475 (2013).
11. J. T. Robinson, F. K. Perkins, E. S. Snow, Z. Q. Wei, and P. E. Sheehan, "Reduced Graphene Oxide Molecular Sensors," Nano Lett. 8, 3137-3140 (2008).
12. W. W. Li, X. M. Geng, Y. F. Guo, J. Z. Rong, Y. P. Gong, L. Q. Wu, X. M. Zhang, P. Li, J. B. Xu, G. S. Cheng, M. T. Sun, and L. W. Liu, "Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrically Contacted Graphene Sensor for Highly Sensitive Nitric Oxide Detection," Acs Nano 5, 6955-6961 (2011).
13. X. R. Zheng, B. H. Jia, H. Lin, L. Qiu, D. Li, and M. Gu, "Highly efficient and ultra-broadband graphene oxide ultrathin lenses with three-dimensional subwavelength focusing," Nat. Commun. 6 (2015).
14. X. Li, Q. Zhang, X. Chen, and M. Gu, "Giant refractive-index modulation by two-photon reduction of fluorescent graphene oxides for multimode optical recording," Sci. Rep. 3, 2819 (2013).
15. X. Li, H. Ren, X. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Li, C. Li, G. Xue, J. Jia, L. Cao, A. Sahu, B. Hu, Y. Wang, G. Jin, and M. Gu, "Athermally photoreduced graphene oxides for three-dimensional holographic images," Nat Commun 6, 6984 (2015).
16. C. Gomez-Navarro, J. C. Meyer, R. S. Sundaram, A. Chuvilin, S. Kurasch, M. Burghard, K. Kern, and U. Kaiser, "Atomic Structure of Reduced Graphene Oxide," Nano Lett. 10, 1144-1148 (2010).
17. W. Gao, L. B. Alemany, L. J. Ci, and P. M. Ajayan, "New insights into the structure and reduction of graphite oxide," Nat. Chem. 1, 403-408 (2009).
18. H. He, J. Klinowski, M. Forster, and A. Lerf, "A new structural model for graphite oxide," Chem. Phys. Lett. 287, 53-56 (1998).
19. K. P. Loh, Q. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, "Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications," Nat. Chem. 2, 1015-1024 (2010).
20. S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, "Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide," Carbon 45, 1558-1565 (2007).
21. D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, "The chemistry of graphene oxide," Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 228-240 (2010).
22. X. M. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, and H. J. Dai, "Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery," Nano Res. 1, 203-212 (2008).
23. Z. Liu, J. T. Robinson, X. Sun, and H. Dai, "PEGylated Nanographene Oxide for Delivery of Water-Insoluble Cancer Drugs," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 10876-10877 (2008).
24. D. Pan, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and M. Wu, "Hydrothermal route for cutting graphene sheets into blue-luminescent graphene quantum dots," Adv. Mater. 22, 734-738 (2010).
25. V. C. Tung, M. J. Allen, Y. Yang, and R. B. Kaner, "High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene," Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 25-29 (2009).
26. Z. Xiaorui, L. Han, Y. Tieshan, and J. Baohua, "Laser trimming of graphene oxide for functional photonic applications," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 074003 (2017).
27. R. Trusovas, G. Račiukaitis, G. Niaura, J. Barkauskas, G. Valušis, and R. Pauliukaite, "Recent Advances in Laser Utilization in the Chemical Modification of Graphene Oxide and Its Applications," Advanced Optical Materials 4, 37-65 (2016).
28. J. Robertson, and E. P. O’Reilly, "Electronic and atomic structure of amorphous carbon," Physical Review B 35, 2946-2957 (1987).
29. D. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice Jr, and R. S. Ruoff, "Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy," Carbon 47, 145-152 (2009).
30. N. A. Kotov, I. Dékány, and J. H. Fendler, "Ultrathin graphite oxide-polyelectrolyte composites prepared by self-assembly: Transition between conductive and non-conductive states," Adv. Mater. 8, 637-641 (1996).
31. X. Li, H. Wang, J. T. Robinson, H. Sanchez, G. Diankov, and H. Dai, "Simultaneous nitrogen doping and reduction of graphene oxide," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 15939-15944 (2009).
32. Z. Wei, D. Wang, S. Kim, S. Y. Kim, Y. Hu, M. K. Yakes, A. R. Laracuente, Z. Dai, S. R. Marder, C. Berger, W. P. King, W. A. De Heer, P. E. Sheehan, and E. Riedo, "Nanoscale tunable reduction of graphene oxide for graphene electronics," Science 328, 1373-1376 (2010).
33. Y. Zhou, Q. Bao, B. Varghese, L. A. L. Tang, C. K. Tan, C. H. Sow, and K. P. Loh, "Microstructuring of graphene oxide nanosheets using direct laser writing," Adv. Mater. 22, 67-71 (2010).
34. Y. Zhou, and K. P. Loh, "Making Patterns on Graphene," Adv. Mater. 22, 3615-3620 (2010).
35. V. Strong, S. Dubin, M. F. El-Kady, A. Lech, Y. Wang, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, "Patterning and Electronic Tuning of Laser Scribed Graphene for Flexible All-Carbon Devices," Acs Nano 6, 1395-1403 (2012).
36. R. Trusovas, K. Ratautas, G. Raciukaitis, J. Barkauskas, I. Stankeviciene, G. Niaura, and R. Mazeikiene, "Reduction of graphite oxide to graphene with laser irradiation," Carbon 52, 574-582 (2013).
37. V. A. Smirnov, A. A. Arbuzov, Y. M. Shul'ga, S. A. Baskakov, V. M. Martynenko, V. E. Muradyan, and E. I. Kresova, "Photoreduction of graphite oxide," High Energy Chemistry 45, 57-61 (2011).
38. Y. Zhang, L. Guo, H. Xia, Q. Chen, J. Feng, and H. Sun, "Photoreduction of graphene oxides: methods, properties, and applications," Adv. Optical Mater.2, 10 (2014).
39. X. Li, T. H. Lan, C. H. Tien, and M. Gu, "Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam," Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
40. X. Li, Y. Cao, and M. Gu, "Superresolution-focal-volume induced 3:0 Tbytes=disk capacity by focusing a radially polarized beam," Opt. Lett. 36, 2510-2512 (2011).
41. S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, "Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing," Nat Photon 3, 388-394 (2009).
42. M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, "Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging," Science 352, 1190-1194 (2016).
43. G. X. Zheng, H. Muhlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. X. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, "Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency," Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 308-312 (2015).
44. L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface," Nat Commun 4, 2808 (2013).
45. X. Li, L. W. Chen, Y. Li, X. H. Zhang, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, X. L. Ma, Y. Q. Wang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Luo, "Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation," Science Advances 2, e1601102 (2016).
National Natural Science Foundation of China (61522504, 61420106014, 61432007, 11604123);Guangdong Provincial Innovation and Entrepreneurship Project (2016ZT06D081);Australian Discovery Project (DP140100849);Australian Laureate Fellowship Scheme (FL100100099)
Get Citation: Wang S C, Ouyang X Y, Feng Z W, Cao Y Y, Gu M et al. Diffractive photonic applications mediated by laser reduced graphene oxides. Opto- Electronic Advances 1, 170002 (2018).